Direkt zum Inhalt

DIN ISO 16000-21

Indoor air - Part 21: Detection and enumeration of moulds - Sampling from materials (ISO 16000-21:2013)

At a glance

German title

Innenraumluftverunreinigungen - Teil 21: Nachweis und Zählung von Schimmelpilzen - Probenahme von Materialien (ISO 16000-21:2013)

Publication date
Engl. VDI/DIN-Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft (KRdL) - Normenausschuss
Related manuals
Number of pages
Available in

Mould is a common name for filamentous fungi from different taxonomic groups (ascomycetes, zygomycetes, and their anamorphic states former known as deuteromycetes or fungi imperfecti). They form a mycelium and spores by which they become visible macroscopically. Most spores are in the size range of 2-10 µm, some up to 30 µm and only few up to 100 µm. Spores of some mould genera are small and become airborne very easily (e. g. Aspergillus, Penicillium) while others are bigger and/or embedded in a slime matrix (Stachybotrys, Fusarium) and less mobile. Mould spores are widely distributed in the outdoor environment and, therefore, occur in varying concentrations also indoors. Growth of moulds in indoor environments, however, should be considered as a hygienic problem because epidemiological studies have revealed that dampness and/or mould growth in homes and health problems affecting the occupants are closely related. Harmonized methods for sampling, detection and enumeration of moulds including standards for sampling strategies are important for comparative assessment of mould problems indoors. Before doing any measurements a plan for the measurement strategy should be made. This part of ISO 16000 describes methods for sampling of moulds from building materials. This part of ISO 16000 is based on parts of VDI 4300 Part 10. This part of ISO 16000 specifies requirements for sampling of moulds from building materials. Following the instructions given, samples are obtained for microscopy or for subsequent detection of moulds by cultivation according to ISO 16000-17. Mould-infested materials are examined either by surface sampling (see 7.1) or bulk sampling (see 7.2), i.e. examination of the complete material or defined deeper material layers. The methods used depend on the investigation objective as described in ISO 16000-19. Surfaces are sampled using the contact plate (see 7.1.1), tape-lift (see 7.1.2) or swab method (see 7.1.3). After sampling the mould spores can be analyzed by direct microscopy (see 7.3) or processed and cultured using the suspension method (see 7.4). The cultivation procedure is described in ISO 16000-17.

Purchase VDI Standard

Price from
77,90 EUR VAT included
Purchase now


Ask a question / Contact us